Music Handbook




Laghu   One of the six Angas that reckons musical time. It consists of a beat and a variable count of fingers. See also Jati.  
Laghu Gotuvadhyam   A small Gotuvadyam, with a short stem and only five strings.  
Laghu Vina   A shorter Vina, with five strings, with a range of one and half octaves.  
Lakshana   A science or grammar, and refers to the Raga and its characteristics. The Lakshanas include Aroha, Avaroha, Jiva Swaras, Nyasa Swaras, Raga Prayogas, Vishesha Sancharas, subtle Srutis, Rasa and the appropriate time of singing.  
Lakshana Gita   See Gita.  
Lakshanakara   Sanskrit term for musicologist. He is deemed to know a lot of facts about music and is an authority on it.  
Lakshana Prabhanda   A composition in which some laws of music are described in its Sahitya. The Murchhana Karaka Mela Ragamalika is a case in point.  
Lakshya Grantha   Treatise on the science of music, with basic notations of compositions.  
Langar   A Hindustani word that means anchor. It refers to the metallic ring-like device to the right of the bridge, through which the strings are tied in a Veena or a Chitraveena.  
Laya   Literally, merging. In Carnatic music, the term refers to the tempo and indicates the speed and gait of a piece of music in the form of a regularly repeated beat a recognizable speed. Vilambita laya is slow tempo, the Madhya Laya is medium paced and the Druta Laya is fast tempo.  
Laya Meettu   Refers to the technique of plucking the Tala strings of the veena. This is a simultaneous upward stoke of the little finger on the three Tala strings.  
Linguaphone   An instrument fitted with tongues that vibrate in different Swaras when plucked. The Morsing is an example. Often bamboo wood, bone and metal are used as tongues.  
Lithophones   Musical instruments made of stone. There are several varieties of such instruments, including sets of stone pillars that sound various notes from the scale when struck, and certain Mukhaveenas, which are miniature Nagaswarams.  
Lochana Kavi   Musicologist from Mithila, who lived towards the end of the 14th century. He is the author of the grantha Raga Tarangini and quotes Vidyapati, the well-known poet of Mithila. Lochana kavi recognized the 22 shruthis and enumerated twelve Thaats. His shuddha scale was Kafi (or Kharaharapriya of Carnatic music).
Lohaja   The sound emanating form metal. e.g. the sound produced by cymbals.  

Any stringed instrument, which has a resonator shaped like a pear at one end, and a stem with a fretted fingerboard. The strings are plucked with the fingers. The standard south Indian Veena is a lute.


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