as opposed to Padya,
which is verse. In a musical composition, the lyrics may be prose or
verse or a mixture of both (Gadya-Padya).
generic nomenclature for all melodic graces and ornamentations that
arise out of musical movement. In the Carnatic tradition the Gamaka
is an essential part of the melodic structure. It is rare therefore that
in this tradition you hear a Swara
unadorned and plain. In Carnatic music, the use of Gamaka
is one of the chief identifying features of the Ragas,
and cannot be omitted or reduced at will. In Hindustani music even the
tonal characteristic can identify the raga without any Gamaka
whatever. In this sense, Hindustani music is somewhat plainer and less
ornamented as compared to Carnatic music. Various commentators have
described several numbers and kinds of Gamakas.
work by K.V.Srinivasa Iyengar, published in 1934.
method and order style of singing various parts of a composition. The Gita
is sung right through, without repeating any line. In the Kriti,
is sung twice. The Anupallavi
is sung after the Pallavi
and the Charanam
follows the Anupallavi.
|Gandhara or Ga
in the octave.
branch of the Veda
that deals with music. It is an Upa
Veda or a subsidiary Veda
along with Ayurveda
Veda (military science) and Artha
Shastra (political science).
musicians mentioned in the Indian Puranas
of a musical piece - the speed and the gait of a composition.
term for the human voice. It is the Veena
of the Gatra,
thus treating the body as a natural musical instrument.
ledge of ivory that separates the body of the Veena
from its stem.
style that views vocal music as the ideal, and mimics the voice.
colloquial term, indicating vigorous, loud music played by a group of
musicians on a Nagaswaram
ensemble. This is played at the moment the Mangalsutra
is tied round the neck of a bride when getting married as per the Indian
|Ghana Raga Pancharatnam
set of popular Tyagaraja
compositions, consisting of ‘Jagadananda Karaka‘ in Nattai,
‘Dudukugala’ in Gowla, ‘Sadhinchane’ in Arabhi, ‘Kanakana
Ruchira’ in Varali and Endaro mahanubhavulu’ in Sri. All these
compositions are in Adi
and each of the Kritis
has multiple Charanams,
which are sung as Swara-Sahitya.
in which the Ghana
are strung together in a Ragamalika
Kuppayyar composed one such piece.
whose principal characteristics are easily revealed, e.g. Arabhi, Nattai,
Varali, Sri and Gowla.
instruments made of metals.
school or style of singing in Hindustani music, usually named after the
place of origin, e.g. Agra, Jaipur, Gwalior, Patiala etc. Also see Bani.
pot of specially seasoned clay, used as a percussion instrument in
musical composition, first taught to students after basic training in Swara
exercises and Alankaras.
These are simple melodies in uniform Laya
and usually in praise of one of the Hindu Gods. There are two kinds, the
which convey the basic outline of the Raga,
and the Lakshana
Gitas, in which the lyrics also explicitly describe the
characteristics of the Ragas
in which they are composed.
immortal poetic-cum-musical Sanskrit classic, composed by Jayadeva in
the twelfth century. There are twelve chapters in it. Each song contains
eight verses or Padas,
on account of which these songs are also called the Ashtapadi.
There are twenty-four such songs.
instrument that is used as an accompaniment to as singer, e.g., Violin,
cylindrical piece of ebony, bison horn or Teflon, used to slide over the
strings of the string instrument Gotuvadyam
of the Sanskrit treatise Sangraha
Chudamani, perhaps the last of the Sanskrit texts on Lakshana.
The author lived during the latter part of the eighteenth century. He
was associated with the Tanjavur court. The Sangraha
Chudamani is available in a modern published version.
highly gifted musician from Travancore. He invented a seven-stringed
tambura, which had two Panchama
strings, two Sarani
strings, two Anusaranis
and one Mandra
string tuned to Shadja.
He was considered an exponent of singing in Shat-kalas
or six speeds.
technique of deriving new scales by shifting the tonic note of an
existing scale. For example, if you take the raga Hindolam (Sa Ga Ma Dha
Ni Sa), and treat the Ga as if it were a Sa, the resulting scale would
be Sa Ri Ma Pa Dha Sa, thus giving the scale of Suddha Saveri. This
transformation is based on the simple mathematical relationship between
the various notes in the octave.
of the six Angas
in Carnatic music. It has two Matras
or eight Akshara-kalas.
The word Guru
also means preceptor, who takes the student from darkness to light.
(signature) used by Muthuswami
in his compositions.
|Gurumurti Sastri, Paidala (c.
of the greatest composers of Gitas,
lineage of preceptor and disciple, through which the living tradition is