wheel or cycle. In Carnatic music, the word refers to the 12 sub-cycles
of the 72 Melakarta
used in concerts. A group of syncopated rhythmic cycles not belonging to
the systems of 7, 35, or 175 Talas.
There are two varieties of Chapu tala - Misra, of seven counts and
Khanda of five counts.
inner layer of the right drumhead of the Mridangam.
concluding (third) part of any composition or Kriti
in the Carnatic tradition.
century author of the commentary named Kalanidhi
on the Sangeeta
of the five Jatis,
with four counts.
variety of Laghu
that consists of a beat followed by three finger counts, thus making for
four counts (Akshara-kalas).
famous treatise written by Venkatamakhi,
around the year 1635, with a detailed description of the Melakarta
organization. The treatise is in Sanskrit and also handles subjects like
and so on. The organization of seventy-two Melakartas
is a remarkable arrangement of musical scales and is quite unique. Venkatamakhi
does not give the total system any detailed nomenclature. He merely
leaves them classified in seventy-two scales. The later Kanakambari
nomenclature kept the Mela
and the Raga
apart. This began to be used not earlier than 1735.
perfect major second, with a frequency ratio of 9/8. The term is used
only in Carnatic music. In Hindustani music, this note is called the Suddha
stringed instrument shapted like the Vina,
but with no frets. It requires the player to have a perfect musical ear.
Since there are no frets, there is no lateral deflection of the strings
as in the Vina.
Instead, a solid cylinder (Gottu)
is held in the left hand, and used to slide over the strings. The
instrument needs to be tuned to a higher tension, and consequently, a
higher pitch, than the Vina.
There are six main strings, three Tala
strings and twelve sympathetic vibration strings. As in the Vina,
the main playing strings are plucked downwards and the Tala
strings are plucked upwards. See also Gotu
passage of set Swara
patterns with a highly sonorous appeal, attached to a Kriti,
sung after the Anupallavi
and the Charanam.
passages are usually composed by the composer of the Kriti.
There are a few instances when such passages have been appended to some Kritis
by later composers.
woodwind instrument with a two and a half octave range. It has a single
reed with keys.
percussion instrument made from bell metal or brass, used for keeping Tala.
It consists of a pair of round discs which, when struck together, is
used in nagaswaram
singing and congregational music.