||A musical form intended for
Also known as Prakruti
swara, it means a fixed note without any variables or
ornamentations. The two fixed notes in Carnatic music are Shadja
(Sa) and Panchama (Pa).
It is the Shadja (Sa) of the middle octave and is
considered the fundamental note (tonic note) upon which melody is
built. It remains fixed throughout the concert.
One of the most popular talas in Carnatic music, it
consists of eight beats (a laghu + 2 dhrutams). It is technically
known as Chaturasra jati Triputa tala.
The author of the treatise Sangita
Parijata, who lived in the seventeenth century. He was the
first one to calibrate the value of swaras in terms of the lengths
of stretched strings.
Vocal practice, employing only the sound aaa. This is
done as part of the voice-culture exercises and results in richness
of tone, timbre, clarity and strength.
Sanskrit term that denotes one time unit.
Literally, decoration. Embellishing features that adorn a
Raga. The word is also used to denote the basic scale-exercises
prescribed for the beginning student.
The development of a raga through improvisation to reveal
the form of the raga within the set boundaries.
Refers to the take-off point (Eduppu), when the
composition starts before the downbeat of a rhythmic cycle. Also see
term for the sound (Nada) that is not heard except in the heart. It is the opposite
Nada, which is the heard sound.
Sanskrit word for one of
the ten Gamakas (ornamentations) mentioned in the text, Sangeeta
Makaranda. It consists of a long amplitude vibrato that
bends the note in relatively quick succession but not at a speed
that would make the sound feel like a vibrato.
It produces a specific stress and emotional quality in the note.
Literally, a limb or a part. In one context, it refers to
the two tetrachords – the lower or the Poorvanga
and the upper or the Uttaranga.
It could also denote one of the divisions of musical time (Tala).
There are six Angas
The perfect third (in
Western music, E – counting from C), or the Mi interval of the
solfage. This corresponds to the fifth harmonic note with a
frequency ratio of 5/4. Also see Anunada.
In the Hindustani system, this note is called Suddha Gandhara.
The final and concluding
section of an Alapana.
One of the Angas
used in reckoning Tala. It is denoted by the symbol “U”. It consists of one
beat, of unit measure.
The second octave range
below the Shadja (tonic note). The word Anumandra also refers to
the correspondingly tuned string, in instruments like Vina and Chitravina.
||The name given to the
hushed Gandhara that is heard when the Mandra string of a tambura
is tuned to the bass tonic. This note arises from the fifth
harmonic. It is also called Swayambhu Gandhara.
||The second section of a Kriti
or a Padam
in Carnatic music. It can be regarded as the equivalent of the Antara
in a Hindustani bandish. Its length is usually either the same as or twice that
of the Pallavi.
||The second of the two
middle strings of the Tambura,
which are both tuned to the tonic note or the Shadja. When the Sarani,
the main string (closest to the Panchama
string of the Tambura), and the Anusarani
are perfectly tuned, the vibration of one string sets the other into
sympathetic vibration, and a resonant sound is heard.
||A subtle melodic nuance
employed in Carnatic music.
||A note that is neither the Vadi
nor the Samvadi note of a Raga,
but is still not in dissonance with either. Hence, it is not the Vivadi
note either. All ragas have two pivotal Swaras, which are the Vadi
and Samvadi notes, while the
other Swaras are neither. Among these, the notes that are not
dissonant are called the Anuvadi
||A note with a pitch that is
poorly focused (false note), or out of tune with respect to the
ideal and true pitch (off-key note). It has a jarring effect on the
||Uncommon, or rare Ragas.
||Literally, ascending the
stage - The debut performance of a musician, dancer, or actor,
before an invited audience.
||Recitation in one fixed
note. This is indicated for some passages of the Rig-Veda,
where the entire hymn is to be recited in one note.
||A series of notes in the
ascending order of pitch.
||The term commonly used to
describe the scale, or the ascending and descending order of notes
of a Raga,
the barest skeleton of its structure. See also Avaroha (Avarohana).
||Literally, eight feet. This
is the name of the well-known poetic compositions of Jayadeva, in the Gita
Govinda. There are twenty-six Ashtapadis
of the seven basic Talas,
consisting of 2 Laghus and 2 drutams.
second octave range above the Shadja. It is the octave higher than the Tara Sthayi.
to the take-off point (Eduppu), when the composition starts after the downbeat of a
rhythmic cycle. See also Anagata.
five – used with respect to an Aroha or an Avaroha
that uses only five notes.
Raga that has five notes
each in ascent and descent. Examples - Hamsadhwani,
Raga that has only five
notes in the ascent but a complete set of seven notes in the
descent. See also Sampoorna.
Raga with five notes in the ascent and six in the descent. Also see Shadava.
covered with stretched skin, e.g. Mridangam.
descending scale of notes of a Raga. Also see Aroha
one cycle. In Carnatic music, used with respect to one rhythmic
cycle of the Tala.