Dr. P. P. Narayanaswami

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Kutcheri, Raga, Tala, Sahitya
Artistes, Composers, Lyrics
Tributes, Tidbits, Quizzes
Dance, Harikatha, Folk Music


TODI, a profound, delightful, soothing melody is the meLam No. 8 both in the sampUrNa, and the asaMpUrNa schemes of the karNATik music tradition. The precise name is  hanumatODi in the sampUrNa paddhati,  and the prefix “hanuma” is inserted to yield the meLam number 8, according to  the kaTapayAdi nomenclature ((ha = 8, na =0, so hanu= 80, which when reversed gives 08).  According to the asaMpUrNa scheme of VE”nkaTamakhi (a tradition faithfully followed by the dIkSItar school),  tODi is the eighth  rAga”nga rAgam,   known was  janatODi (again, the prefix “jana” yields the number 8 according to the “kaTapayAdi” counting , since  ja = 8, na =0).

lakSaNam (VE”nkaTamakhi):

tODiH SaDjagrahaH pUrNaH
sAyaMkAlE pragIyatE |

MELam hanumatODi / janatODi  is the second mELam  belonging to  the second cakram (nEtra cakram), hence it is referred to as “nEtra ---  shrI”, with the mnemonic phrase    ra gi ma  dha ni  or  R1  G2 M1 D1 N2.


s r g m p d n .s


.s n d p m g r s

The notes taken are: SaDjam, shuddha riSabham, sadhAraNa  gAndhAram, suddha madhymam, pa~ncamam, shuddha dhaivatam, and kaishiki nishAdam.

Salient Features

A mELam with a symmetrical ArOhaNam and avarOhaNam.  The tetra-chords are symmetrical, and separated by an interval of a major tone, dvishruti between S --R1 and P – D1; trishruti between G2 – M1 and N2 -- S; catushruti interval  between R1 – G2  and D1 –N2.  This elegance creates beauty to this rAgam.

JIva svarams:            all svarams

chAyA svarams:        ga , ma, dha

aMsha svarams:       ma, pa

nyAsa svarams:        ga, ma. pa , dha, ni

It is a tristAyi, and sarvasvara gamaka vArikA rAgam

JhaNTa svara and dhATu svara prayOgams  sparkle this rAgam;  prayOgams omitting pa, sa add beauty;  Some vishESa prayOgams are : d r .s D  and .r .s D.

Compositions in tODi commence usually in the notes sa, ga, ma pa, dha, ni.

This is a  rAgam which brings out supreme melody, a sarva svara ra~njaka rAgam.  Majestic vibrations, and the meandering of the gamakams, laden with full bhAvam characterize the melodic identity of tODi.  All svarams except madhyamam admit oscillation; The notes ga and dha constitute the nuclei of the melodic network of tODi;  the un-oscillated ma acts as a balancing link between the pUrvA”ngm and uttarA”ngam.

As a  rAgam with tremendous scope for elaboration, tODi is usually featured as a main item, or in the rAgam tAnam pallavi expositions in a concert.  Being a ghana rAgam, it enjoys the pride of place in every concert, and lends itself to all types of compositions.

graha bhEdam

TODi is a  sarva svara mUrcchanakAraka mELam, in the sense that all notes except pa~ncamam admit  graha bhEdam to yield new mElams. The process of model shift of tonic (graha bhEdam) produces

kalyANi  (65)                                     Ri     mUrcchana

harikAmbhOdhi (28)                        Ga    mUrcchana,

naTabhairavi (20      )                       Ma   mUrcchana

sha”nkarAbharaNam (29)              dha   mUrcchana

kharaharapriya (22)                         ni  mUrcchana.

TODi rAgam is believed to have originated from the rSabha mUrcchana of the SaDja grAmam.

It evokes bhakti and karuNa rasam.  It is no wonder that numerous devotional songs are based on the soothing tODi, and some of its janyams. TODi is usually featured in the operas and dance dramas. 

MattakOkalam folk tunes of tamil music is similar to tODi.


TODi is mentioned in all important musical works from the early period. This rAgam has been mentioned in Sa”ngIta ratnAkaram (13th century), rAgatara”giNi (14th century) of Locana Kavi,  sa”ngIta samaya sAra (11th century) of PArasvadEva, rAga vibOdha (1609) of sOmanAtha,   sa”ngIta sArAm.rta (1735) of TulAjA mahAraja, samgraha cUDAmaNi (18-19th century) of  gOvindAcArya., etc. In the literature, one can find the names such as chAyA tODi, turuSka tODi, and so on.  Also, Locana Kavi calls it “TODi”  (with “T” in place of “t”) instead of “tODi”. (see the difference between “T”  and “t” in the pronunciation guide).

Strangely, this rAgam does not find a place among the 19 prasiddha mEla scheme in VE”nkaTamakhin’s caturdaNDI prakAshika., whereas  bhUpAlam is clearly mentioned.  Muddu VE”nkaTamakhi refers to tODi as an "auttara  rAgam” (that belongs to the northern region), and calls it  “janatODi”, a view not shared by Professor Sambamurthy.

SangIta SampradAya Pradarshini On tODi (asampUrNa paddhati)

SubbarAma DikSitar, in his encyclopedia, “SangIta SampradAya Pradarshini”, describes the mUrcchana of  janatODi  as follows:


r G m p d N s


s n d p m G r s

He describes the lakSaNa details:  a rAga”nga rAgam, sampUrNAm, SaDja grahjam, rakti rAgam, suitable for singing in the evening times.  He further adds that this rAgam is packed with the best ra~njana   among all the rakti rAgams.  As illustration, he provides the following compositions:

lakSya gItam

a rE rAjarAja gIta caritra, ,jhaMpa tALam  (VE”nkaTamakhi)


ArE dAsharathE, dhruva tALam  (pUrvikas -  the ancients)


kamalAmbikE (dhyANa k.rti of the kamalAmbA navAvarana series), rUpaka tALam (muttusvAmi dIkSitar)

gAnalOla karuNalavALa , Adi tALam  (cinnasvAmi dIkSitar)

gajavadana sammOdita, Adi tALam  (MahArAja KumAra ETTEndra)

cauka varNam

rUpamu jUci,  Adi tALam  (muttusvAmi dIkSitar) – sometimes this is attributed to Ramasvami Dikshitar.

A rare svarasthAna varNam: sarigAni dAni pAmarini,  Adi tALam  (RAmasvAmi DikSitar)  - where the sAhityam employs only the seven letters sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni  to coin appropriate telugu words for its lyric.


AdiyAramba kkalaviyalE, Adi tALam  (KaTikai muKkuppulavar)

sa~ncAri , ragaNa maThya tAlam. (subbarAma dIkSItar)

The author, then goes on to discuss three janyams, nAgavarALi, punnAgavarALi, and asAvEri.

HindusthAni system

The HindusthAni equivalent of tODI is the Bhairavi Thath. In the Hindusthani system, it is regarded as a morning rAga.  Note that the HindusthAni tODi is NOT karNATik tODi, but the equivalent melody  is shubhapantuvarali.

The tODi group of HindusthAni system includes such exotic rAgams like Miyan ki tODi, BilAskhAni tODi, and so on. 

shuddha tODI

Sometimes the svaram "pa" is omitted, and the resulting tODi is known as shuddha tODi.  Examples are:

(i) pa~nca rAga svarajati of SvAti tirunAL  (the tODi segment of this piece omits "pa", producing a pleasing effect)

(ii) the  gItam “ of the ancients, a rE dasaratharAja”  mentioned above.

dEshya tODi

This is a SADava-sampUrNa (6-7)  rAgam derived from tODi., with the note “ri” omitted in the ArOhaNam (scale: s g m p d n.s; .s n d p m g r s). This resembles very closely to the Bhairavi ThaTh of the Hindusthani system.  Some tODi compositions of TyAgarAja are sung in dEshya tODi.

Todi in Films

The splendor of  tODi is glorified in a full length film by the name “tODI rAgam” with T. N. Seshagopalan as the hero and singer.  Several film songs are based on tODi melody. Balamuralikrishna’s  renditioin of the rAgamAlikaoru nAL pOdumA”  in the film TiruviLaiyADal, has the tODi line “ezuntODi varuvAyammA”, with the rAga mudra cleverly disguised in it. 

Peculiar compositions in tODi

RAmasvAmi DIkSitar has to his credit a svarastAna pada varNam, in tODi, where the sAhityam (text) employs only the seven letters sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni   to coin genuine, meaningful words in Telugu for its lyrics.

The lyric is given below:


sarigAni dAni pAamarini nI pada

samAgmamAga nIganinisA


garimamadAri padAri sadAri

gamapadanIdAnigA nidaAi pasagani


marimari ganisAga nipani dagadani

mAnigAnigA nimmanigAda

mari nI pathama manigA marienigA

maNali VE”nkaTak.rSNEndra nAto

M. Balamuralikrishna  has  composed a  similar composition (perhaps inspired by Ramaswami DIkSitar), again in tODi, and the lyric  runs as follows:


mA mAnini, nI dhAma gani nI dAsarini gAdA


mama pApa mada damani, nI niga nigani marI marI nimmA


sari gAni dAri mAri, gadAdhari nI niga niga gani, nI magani

sAma nigama garima gani nI pAda dari ni pari pari

muraLI ravaLimmani sadA kOriti namma

A puzzle

MuttusvAmi DIkSitar, who carefully introduced rAga mudra in many of his compositions through the art of shlEsham (double meaning), and other clever devices, has not inserted the  rAga mudra for all of his eight  k.rtis in rAgam tODi.  This is puzzling.  There is no single phrase in any of  these 8 k.rtis, even to suggest that he employed a different rAga name  (like janatODi).  Since it is a common belief that he always inserted the rAga mudra for the very first composition in each rAgam, perhaps one such k.rti in tODi might have existed with a built-in rAga mudra, and it is currently lost to us.

Masterly renditions

TODi SitArAmayya, a gifted  musician in  the court of King SerafOji, is said to have  sung this rAgam continuously for eight days, which  earned the title tODi sItArAmayya.  He developed the AlApana progressively in the prescribed manner of treatments like AkSipta, rAga varddhani, sthAyI and makariiNi, culmtinating in a grand pallavi rendition.  A marvellous feat indeed.  Sometimes he used to pledge the tODi rAgam  (his property) for borrowing money, promising not to sing tODi until the money is completely repaid.

T.N. Rajaratnam Pillai’s renditions of tODI in the nAdasvaram,  especially   in the temple festivals of Ta~njAvUr, TiruviDaimarudUr, TiruvAdutturai  and Tiruppanandal,  was really amazing, and a marvelous treat to the ears.  He could elaborate tODi for hours, or even throughout the night, with boundless imagination. and hold the audience spell-bound.  People used to believe that “tODI” was his personal family treasure (vITTu svattu).  Once, Smt M.L. Vasantakumari rendered tODi, where  Rajaratnam Pillai was present among the audience.   At the end of the concert, he congratulated the artist for her exquisite rendition --- a true complement indeed for MLV from a champion of tODi.

Madurai Mani Iyer used to popularize k.rtis such as koluvamere gada (TyAgarAja)  and tAyE yashOda (UttukkADu VE”nkata kavi) in  his concerts. T. N. Seshagopalan is another artist, who can thrill the audience for hours with his exquisite and masterly renditions of tODi

janya rAgams

tODi claims to have a large number of janya rAgams. Walter Kaufman’s “Ragas of South India” describes 43 janyams of tODi.  Lakshman Ragde’s “Ultimate Index” lists more than 100 janyams.  We have already mentioned shuddha tODi and dEshya tODi.  In addition, the following are some of the very popular janyams.

nAgavarALi, punnAgavarAli, Ahiri, asAvEri,chAyAbauLi, indusAara”nganATa, himA”ngi shuddhasImantini, chandrikatOdi, nAdanALi, janyatODi, dEshikaba”ngaLa, rEvagupti, kaLAsAvEri, shuddha mArva, dhanyashi, bhAnucandrika, suddhasAmanta, punnagatODi, candragAndhAram, bhUpALam

Popular Composition in tODi

Every composer has enriched  tODi rAgam with his or her  contribution to the flood of compositions.  Among the trinity, TyAgarAja has composed a staggering number of 32 k.rtis,  dIkSitar has 8, and shyAma Sastri has four.  Besides the trinity, svAti tirunAl has 14, and pApanAsham shivan has 19 songs in tODi.  Lakshman Ragde’s “Ultimate Index” lists a whopping  737 compositions in tODi.   The following is only a very meager list of popular compositions that have stood the test of time.

lakSya gItam

arE rajarAja, jhaMpa tALam (VE”nkaTamakhi)

a rE rE dasharatharAja, dhruvam  (pUrvIkAs) (omits the svaram "pa")


a rE rE kOsala dEshapAla, tripuTa (gOvindAcArya)


in ragaNa  maThya tALam  (Subarama DIkSitar)

svarasthAna varNam (rare and special)

sa ri gA ni pAmarini  Adi (Ramaswami DIkSitar)

mA mAninI nI dhAmA , Adi  (M. Balamuralikrishna)


sa sa ni dha pa ma ga Adi (SvAti tirunAL)

sa ri ni dha pa ga, rUpakam (vINai k.rSNamAcArya)


ErA nApai (Patnam Subrahmanya Iyer)

Kanaka”ngi (Pallavi Gopala Iyer)

samI ninnE, Adi (Vina Kuppayyar)

saridIsha, cApu (SvAti TirunAL)

saraguNa  gAvumu (Balamuraliksrishna)

pada varNam

rUpamu jUci, Adi  (RAmasvAmi (MuttusvAmi ?) DIkSitar

dAni sAmajEndragamini, Adi (SvAti tirunAL)


kamalAmbikE, rUpakam (MuttusvAmi DIkSitar)

dAkSAyani abhayAmbikE, rUpakam (MuttusvAmi DIkSitar)

pAlaya mAm b.rhadIshvari, rUpakam (MuttusvAmi DIkSitar)

shrI subrahmaNyO mAm, Adi (MuttusvAmi DIkSitar)

mahAgaNapatim, rUpakam (MuttusvAmi DIkSitar)

shrIk.rSNam bhaja, Adi (MuttusvAmi DIkSitar)

rAmacandrAya namastE , mishra cApu (MuttusvAmi DIkSitar)

VEdAraNyEshvarAYa namastE, Adi  (MuttusvAmi DIkSitar)  8

gajavadanasammOdita,  Adi  (KumAra ETTEndra mahArAja)

gAnalola karuNAlavAla, Adi (Cinnaswami DIkSitar)

AragimpavE, rUpakam (TyAgarAja)

InnALLavaLE vinta, mishra cApu (TyAgarAja)

enduku dayarAdurA, mishra cApu (TyAgarAja)

endu dAginAdo, mishra cAPu (TyAgarAja)

evaru teluiyaga, rUpakam (TyAgarAja)

Emani mATAditivO, Adi (TyAgarAja)

Emi jEsitEnEmi, mishra cApu (TyAgarAja)

kaDatErA rAda, dEshAdi (TyAgarAja)

kaddanu vAriki, Adi (TyAgarAja)

karuNa jUDavammA, Adi (TyAgarAja)

koluvamare gadA, Adi (TyAgarAja)

kOTI naTulu dhanuSkOtilO, Adi (TyAgarAja)

gati nIvaninE kOri, Adi (TyAgarAja)

cEsinAdella, Adi (TyAgarAja)

tappi braTiki pOva taramA, rUpakam (TyAgarAja)

dAcukOvalEna, mishra cApu (TyAgarAja)

dAsharathi nI .rNamu, Adi (TyAgarAja)

dorakunAyani, rUpakam (TyAgarAja)

namO namO rAghavAya, rUpakam (TyAgarAja ) - in dEshyatODi

ninuvinA sukhamugana, rUpakam (TyAgarAja)

nI daya ravalegAkA, Adi (TyAgarAja)

nIvaNTI daivamu, Adi (TyAgarAja)

nE pogaTakuNTE, KhaNDa cApu (TyAgarAja) - in dEshya tODi

poddu poyyEni shrIrAmuini, mishra cApu (TyAgarAja)

v.rndavana lOla, rUpakam (TyAgarAja)

munnu rAvaAna, mishra jhaMpa (TyAgarAja)

rAjuveDala jUtA murArE, rUpakam (TyAgarAja)

rE Manawa cintaya rAmam, rUpakam (TyAgarAja)

rUkalu padivElunnA, AdI (TyAgarAja)  (in deshya tODi)

varidhi nIku vandana, mishra cApu (TyAgarAja)

veDalenu kOdaNDapAni, rUpakam (TyAgarAja)

hariyanu vAri sariyevarE, Adi (TyAgarAja)  

Emani migula varNintu, Adi (shyAmA shAstri)

karunanidhi illalO, Adi (shyAma shAastri)

ninnE namminAnu sadA, mishra cApu (shyAma shAstri)

rAvE himagirikumAri, Adi (shyAmA shAastri)

nannu brOcuTaku, Adi (SubbarAya shAstri)

shrI kamalAmbikE cinta dIrci, rUpakam (Subbaraya Sastri)  - in dEshya tODI

karuNA kaTAkSii nannu, Adi  (ANNaswami Sastri)

sAmOdam kalayAmi, Adi  (SvAti tirunAL)

dEvadEva mAm palaya, mishra cApu (SvAti tirunAL)

bhArati mAmamva, Adi  (SvAti tirunAL)

japata japata harinAma, Adi (SvAti tirunAL)

mandaradhara, tishra tripuTa (SvAti tirunAL)

pa”nkajAkSanAm ramEshan, Adi (SvAti tirunAL)  -- utsava prabandham

pa”nkajAkSa tava sEvAM, rUpakam (SvAti tirunAL) – navaratnamAlika

shrI rAmacandra, Adi (SvAti tirunAL)

sarasijanAbha murARE, mishra cApu (SvAti tirunAL)

saridIshavAsa pAhi, mishra cApu (SvAti tirunAL)

sAdu tadA nijabhaktim, Adi (SvAti tirunAL)

A~njanAnanda ambOdhicandra, Adi (uttukkADu VE”nkata kavi)

annaiyarkal vanam nADI vandAr, Adi (uttukkADu VE”nkata kavi)

dAsharathE dayAnidhe, Adi (uttukkADu VE”nkata kavi)

dn I”ngE vandu, Adi (uttukkADu VE”nkata kavi)

jaTAdhara sha”nkara dEvadEva, Adi (uttukkADu VE”nkata kavi)

tale sharaNam ammA, Adi (uttukkADu VE”nkata kavi)

tannam taniyake cenralE, mishra cApu (uttukkADu VE”nkata kavi)

tAyE yashOdA undan , Adi (uttukkADu VE”nkata kavi)

urugAda manam enna mamnamO, Adi  (uttukkADu VE”nkata kavi)

vandavarai varamendrazhaittu, Adi  (uttukkADu VE”nkata kavi)

dEvi padam panintEn, Adi (Papanasam Sivan)

ga”ngAyani, mishra Ekam i (Papanasam Sivan)

kali tIrumO, deshAdi (Papanasam Sivan)

kArtikEya gA”ngEya, Adi (Papanasam Sivan)

kunram kuTikoNDa, Adi (Papanasam Sivan)

ma”ngala nAyaki, Adi (Papanasam Sivan)

pAril nalvazhi kATTu, Adi (Papanasam Sivan)

patitapAvana rAma, Adi (Papanasam Sivan)

rajagOpAla, rUpakam  (Papanasam Sivan)

tAmatam En svAmi, Adi (Papanasam Sivan)

taNikai vaLar, khaNDa cApu (Papanasam Sivan)

tanikEshanai punindu, Adi (Papanasam Sivan)

undu kuladaiva, Adi  (Papanasam Sivan)

ambanAdu vinnapavini, Adi (Pallavi Gopala Iyer)

Emani pogaDuDu, Adi (Grabhapuri vasa)

Ananda naTEshA, Adi  (Ramaswamy Sivan)

darishanamE mukti, Adi (Nilakantan SIvan)

karunAkaTakSa, rUpakam (Nilakantan SIvan)

parAtpara raghuvIra, Adi (Mysore Vasudevachariar)

nArAyaNam namata, Adi (Mysore Vasudevachariar)

k.rpAlayam, Adi (Mysore Sadasiva Rao)

ekkAlattilum, Adi (Lakshmanan Pillai)

enataruLvayE, rUpakam (Lakshmanan Pillai)

kanda kumAra, Adi (Lakshmanan Pillai)

Yaretirttal enna, Adi (Lakshmanan Pillai)

innum ko~njam, Adi (Muthukumaraswami)

ennEramum, Adi (Muthuthandavar)

e”ngE vaittirundAy, maThyam (Arunachala Kavi)

rAmanukku mannan, mishra cApu (Arunachala Kavi)

varuga vittenum, Adi (Arunagirinathar)

irvinayin, tripuTa (Arunagirinathar)

nAlumainduvasal Adi (Arunagirinathar)

caitanya vigrahamE, rUpakam (Ghanam Krishna Iyer)

amba nannadadarincave, rUpakam (Chengalvaraya Sastri)

sha”nkaranai tudittiDu, rUpakam (Gopalakrishna Bharathi)

cidambaramE ninai, Adi (Gopalakrishna Bharathi)

bhakti sEyka vIra, Adi (Gopalakrishna Bharathi)

sundara maindan, rUpakam (Kavikunjara Bharathi)

aruL pAarayyA, Adi (Kavikunjara Bharathi)

kaikkishainda, rUpakam (Kavikunjara Bharathi)

manamadanaguvade, Adi (Muthiah Bhagavathar)

bhagaLA deviya, Adi (Muthiah Bhagavathar)

mInalocani amba, rUpakam (Muthiah Bhagavathar)

paciyana turumeni Adi (Muthiah Bhagavathar)

kalitIra vantaruL, mishra cApu (Kotiswara Iyer)

appanE kapAli, rUpakam  (Kotiswara Iyer)

kamalanAbha, rUpakam (K.C.Keshava Pillai)

mamakulEshvaram, Ekam (G N Balasubrahmanyam)

shrIvE”katEsham,  RUpakam (Ramnad Srinivasa Iyengar)

Adum perumanE, Adi (Periyasami Tooran)

ambalattil Adum, Adi(Periyasami Tooran)

enna pizhai, Adi (Periyasami Tooran)

IunnaDimai, Adi (Periyasami Tooran)

gajAnanam gaNapatim, maThyam (JayacAmarAja Odeyar)


sundarA”nga, rUpakam (SvAti tirunAL) – maNipravALa padam

Adi yAraMbhakkalavitile tAnE, Adi  (kaTikai mUkkuppulavar)

calayinduku, Adi (KSEtraj~na )

eccOTa nunnaDo, Adi (KSEtraj~na )

elane vadu, tripuTa  (KSEtraj~na )

EmaNDui namma, tripuTa (KSEtraj~na )

maracE nEmo, tripuTa (KSEtraj~na )

mrokkera calamEla, Adi (KSEtraj~na )

tadagu pOpammana, Adi KSEtraj~na )

ellA arumaiyum, rUpakam (Ghanam Krishna Iyer)


There are several tillAnas in tODi, with composers like  Ramanapuran Srinivasa Iyengar, Ponnayya Pillai, Kunrakkudi Krishna Iyer,  Namassivaya pulavar, vINa Seshanna, Spencer Venugopal, and so forth.

rAgamAlika segments

TODi usually appears as a segmental rAgam in numeous rAgamAlikas. .Maha Vaidyanatha Iyer's mammoth 72 mELarAgamalika features tODi in the eight line of the caraNam, with a brilliant rAga mudra for the complete name, “hanumatODi”.

hanumatO DiNDImabhavaM stuvatO sutanumatodadaH bhutibhushaNa |

Tamil rAgamAlikas have the advantage of incorporating the rAga mudra for tODi  very easily.  For example, the tamil film song "orunAl pODumA" in the movie Tiruvilayadal, features a rAgamAlika song, sung by Balamuralikrishna, and the line for tODi reads: “ezhuntODi varuvAyammA”.

Pallavi lines 

The catur rAga pallavi, “sha”nkarAbharaNanai azhaittODi vADi kalyANi darbArukku”  (made famous by Ariyakkudi Ramanuja Iyengar, KVN and others) has tODi as a component rAgam.

There are numerous other pallavi lines in tODi.  Balamuralikrishna’s 45rpm EP recording of the 60s, “nIrajadaLa lOcani nikhilalOkajanani” is very popular.

A final tidbit

Finally, have you heard about a little town in Italy by the name Todi?  If you Google search the phrase “Todi” on the internet, you will come up with a long list of websites of Tourist Offices in southern Italy, providing tourist information about the small medevial town, by the name “Todi”, in the Umbria region.  Sometime back, in one of the threads in the Usenet newsgroup, rec.music.Indian.classical, someone posted a query about rAgam tODi, and to everyone’s surprise, a reply was posted in Italian by one such office in Italy!


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